The Simplest Math Problem No One Can Solve - Collatz Conjecture
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Veritasium
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The Collatz Conjecture is the simplest math problem no one can solve - it is easy enough for almost anyone to understand but notoriously difficult to solve. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.
Special thanks to Prof. Alex Kontorovich for introducing us to this topic, filming the interview, and consulting on the script and earlier drafts of this video.
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References:
Lagarias, J. C. (2006). The 3x+ 1 problem: An annotated bibliography, II (2000-2009). arXiv preprint math/0608208. - ve42.co/Lagarias2006
Lagarias, J. C. (2003). The 3x+ 1 problem: An annotated bibliography (1963-1999). The ultimate challenge: the 3x, 1, 267-341. - ve42.co/Lagarias2003
Tao, T (2020). The Notorious Collatz Conjecture - ve42.co/Tao2020
A. Kontorovich and Y. Sinai, Structure Theorem for (d,g,h)-Maps, Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series 33(2), 2002, pp. 213-224.
A. Kontorovich and S. Miller Benford's Law, values of L-functions and the 3x+1 Problem, Acta Arithmetica 120 (2005), 269-297.
A. Kontorovich and J. Lagarias Stochastic Models for the 3x + 1 and 5x + 1 Problems, in "The Ultimate Challenge: The 3x+1 Problem," AMS 2010.
Tao, T. (2019). Almost all orbits of the Collatz map attain almost bounded values. arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.03562. - ve42.co/Tao2019
Conway, J. H. (1987). Fractran: A simple universal programming language for arithmetic. In Open problems in Communication and Computation (pp. 4-26). Springer, New York, NY. - ve42.co/Conway1987
The Manim Community Developers. (2021). Manim - Mathematical Animation Framework (Version v0.13.1) [Computer software]. www.manim.community/
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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Alvaro Naranjo, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal
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Written by Derek Muller, Alex Kontorovich and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Jonny Hyman, Jesús Enrique Rascón and Mike Radjabov
Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang
3d Coral by Vasilis Triantafyllou and Niklas Rosenstein - ve42.co/3DCoral
Coral visualisation by Algoritmarte - ve42.co/Coral

Коментара: 67 736
  • Wissle
    Wissle

    I don't care about math whatsoever but this was incredibly interesting.

  • Demens Clay
    Demens Clay

    A big shoutout ot the graphics department for making this 100% more understandable!

  • Claudio Aguilera
    Claudio Aguilera

    for the ones who want to play with this, here it's a code of python so you can try:

  • julz z
    julz z

    the thing about the coral: it looks like coral that's actually exactly how nature works! it works on fractal math, because that's the simplest way to gain infinite complexity by just starting with a small rule like this

  • Tigran Tadevosyan
    Tigran Tadevosyan

    It is really amazing that even though we have such advanced sciences, we can't solve seemingly such a simple problem. With all the advances in astrophysics, machine learning, and other stuff this kind of problem seems to be a child's play, but it is still not solved by the greatest mind humanity can off.

  • Christopher Gibbons
    Christopher Gibbons

    I could totally imagine someone using this problem as their personal equivalent of the morning crossword puzzle.

  • shadyceddy
    shadyceddy

    Fun fact: We are not mathematicians but we got interested by this.

  • Victor Martinez
    Victor Martinez

    I actually did the 27,114,424 step by step on my phone calculator and it took ages but I felt so accomplished 😭

  • Mark van Dijk
    Mark van Dijk

    What a clear and beautiful explanation of something complex. Great work! Your presenting skills are out of the ballpark

  • David Svarrer
    David Svarrer

    Well. The question, formulated a bit differently actually goes this way: Is there a sequence of

  • dbeast0318
    dbeast0318

    I feel like there's probably some way this could be proven, but as this video points out, it's a simple problem with relatively simple rules that can be applied, with many, many hidden catches and layers to it. The concept of trying to find patterns for numbers we can prove can be solved based on a set of increasingly large factors seems like the way I'd go. I think if you could start significantly limiting the searching space with a proof limiting which numbers do

  • mo
    mo

    Math requires you to think deeply, at least for me it does.

  • Dabo Life
    Dabo Life

    Math problem no one can solve: Exists

  • scott stutzman
    scott stutzman

    If it is ever solved it will be a stroke of luck. These are both interesting and frustrating at the same time. I have never been any good at math but I wish I had even the smallest understanding of some of this theories they are truly amazing.

  • hs 92160
    hs 92160

    I used to hate Math ; But i just realised its because i did not understand it ...

  • Sergiu Stefan
    Sergiu Stefan

    Wish I had had one of you guys as my math teacher. Would have made class a lot more interesting.

  • Ben Marshall
    Ben Marshall

    something i find very interesting is that the only difference between this with negative and positive integers is that you essentially just subtract instead of add with negative numbers, but it has 3 loops instead of 1

  • John H
    John H

    I think what you'll find is that the whole universe is actually just maths. The more you go back to the origin of the universe the more abstract it becomes and tends only to be described by mathematical equations. A parallel is a fractal which starts from a simple equation and yet evolves into a fantastic universe of patterns, complexity and variation. That's what we are in. Possibly.

  • Pranav Pandey
    Pranav Pandey

    Your way of Explaining through Graphics is beautiful sir.

  • Marshmallow
    Marshmallow

    Maths is my only favourite subject from class 2. I just like how interesting this subject is, you have to make possibilities on some points on your own and how a big statement becomes a constant